Extended Answer (Long Conclusion)

Guidelines, Example & Checklist

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Checklist on bottom of this page

A Scientific Conclusion is a very very strange type of Story about an experiment that you did to find out something about the Natural World

It starts by telling what the story was all about….

1. The Question &endash; a scientific conclusion begins by giving an overview of what was attempted or the question that was used to guide the investigation.

Example: This experiment (or investigation if not an experiment) tested 100 children age 4-7 to see if they preferred food packaged with Wendy's labels vs the same food in containers that had blank labels.

(notice the overview includes both the manipulated variable (change in label type) and the responding variable (preference of children)

 

2. State The Hypothesis &endash; Next you tell what you thought was going to happen in the experiment and why you thought that. Do this by stating the complete Hypothesis using an IF-THEN-Because statement(s)

Example:

IF young children are given a choice between Wendy's labelled food and identical food with no labels,

Then the students will prefer the food packaged with Wendy's labels

Because Wendy's has influenced their choice through effective advertising.

 

3. State if the Hypothesis was Accepted, Rejected, or if the results were Inconclusive

you tell everyone whether your Hypothesis was accepted or rejected by the data you gathered. (If the Hypothesis was off topic its ALWAYS rejected!)

Example: This hypotheis was rejected because:

 

4. Use data to explain Why the Hypothesis was Accepted or Rejected

a. Include experimental data using appropriate high values, low values, and averages to clearly tell what happened in the experiment/investigation.

b. If a complete experiment there will be Control trial data. Always make sure to compare your Experimental data to the Control data

Example:

a. Trial 1 shows that over 75% of the children preferred the hamburgers with the blank labels (the Control Trial) vs 20% that preferred the hamburgers with Wendy's labels (the Experimental Trial). See Data Table 1 for the results

b. Trial 2 shows that over 66% of the children preferred the french fries with blank labels vs 30% with Wendy's labels.

c. Finally, Trial 3 shows that 59% of the children tested preferred the salads with blank labels vs 42% with Wendy's labels.

 

5. Final Summary &endash; Create a summary that answers the Investigative Question

Example: In summary, the data clearly shows that children age 4-7 prefer food packaged with plain container vs identical food inWendy's containers.

 

Advanced Conclusions also contain the following three items before the Final Summary.

A. Identify any sources of error that could have messed up the experiment and tell how this could be fixed next time the experiment/investigation is done.

Example:

Experimental Design error could have occurred in these trials as each of the children were given all three types of food at once. Thus, if a child liked hamburgers with blank labels, this could have influenced their preference for the other foods with blank labels. Next time I'd test each food separately with about 15 minutes in between tests.

Also, Calculation error could have occurred as there were 3 people calculating the data and the data was not cross checked.

 

B. Tell how Reliable the data is, and how it could be made more reliable.

Example:

This data was very reliable as there were 100 trials for each food type. (A minimum of 3 trials provides good reliability.)

 

C. Explain how to improve the Validity of the experiment. This means proposing a way to be sure that the change in the MV caused a change in the RV in this experiment.

Example:

The experiment has good validity. In each trial (hamburgers, french fries, and salad) the change in labels caused and change in perference even though the food was identical. To improve the validity I'd do a fourth trial, this time using a labeled and unlabeled Wendy's Frostie.

 

Example Conclusion

This experiment (or investigation if not an experiment) tested 100 children age 4-7 to see if they preferred food packaged with Wendy's labels vs the same food in containers that had blank labels.

The hypothesis is: IF young children are given a choice between Wendy's labelled food and identical food with no labels, Then the students will prefer the food packaged with Wendy's labels, Because Wendy's has influenced their choice through effective advertising.

This hypotheis was rejected because:

a. Trial 1 shows that over 75% of the children preferred the hamburgers with the blank labels (the Control Trial) vs 20% that preferred the hamburgers with Wendy's labels (the Experimental Trial). See Data Table 1 for the results

b. Trial 2 shows that over 66% of the children preferred the french fries with blank labels vs 30% with Wendy's labels.

c. Finally, Trial 3 shows that 59% of the children tested preferred the salads with blank labels vs 42% with Wendy's labels.

In summary, the data clearly shows that children age 4-7 prefer food packaged with plain container vs identical food inWendy's containers.

 

For an advanced conclusion add: Sources of Error, Reliability, and Validity

Experimental Design error could have occured in these trials as each of the children were given all three types of food at once. Thus, if a child liked hamburgers with blank labels, this could have influenced their preference for the other foods with blank labels. Next time I'd test each food separately with about 15 minutes in between tests.

Also Calculation error could have occurred as there were 3 people calculating the data and the data was not cross checked.

 

Reliability: This data was very reliable as there were 100 trials for each food type.

Validity: The experiment has good validity. In each trial (hamburgers, french fries, and salad) the change in labels caused and change in perference even though the food was identical. To improve the validity I'd do a fourth trial, this time using a labeled and unlabeled Wendy's Frostie.

 

Extended Conclusion Checklist

 

1. _______ Summary - Summarize the Question being investigated

 

2. _______ Hypothesis - State The Hypothesis

 

3. _______ Tell if the Hypothesis was Accepted, Rejected, or if the results were Inconclusive

 

4. _______ Use data to explain Why the Hypothesis was Accepted or Rejected

 

a._______ Tell Highs, Lows, Avg… use averages if possible
______ The High data points

______ The Low data points

______ Averages

b. _______ Compare data to Control Trial

 

5. _______ Create a Final Summary of what was learned.

 

Add these for an Advanced Conclusion - be prepared for these as Follow on Questions

a. _______ Identify any sources of error and how to fix errors next time

 

b. _______ Tell how Reliable the data is, and how it could be made more reliable.

 

c. _______ Explain how to improve the Validity of the experiment.

 

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